ما هو الفرق بين الصدفة والقذائف المدارية؟ اشرحها باستخدام مخطط.


الاجابه 1:
  • Allelectronsthathavethesamevaluefornn(theprinciplequantumnumber)areinthesameshellWithinashell(samen[math]n[/math]),allelectronsthatsharethesamel[math]l[/math](theangularmomentumquantumnumber,ororbitalshape)areinthesamesubshellWhenelectronssharethesamen[math]n[/math],l[math]l[/math],andml[math]ml[/math],wesaytheyareinthesameorbital(theyhavethesameenergylevel,shape,andorientation)All electrons that have the same value for nn (the principle quantum number) are in the same shellWithin a shell (same n[math]n[/math]), all electrons that share the same l[math]l[/math] (the angular momentum quantum number, or orbital shape) are in the same sub-shellWhen electrons share the same n[math]n[/math], l[math]l[/math], and ml[math]ml[/math], we say they are in the same orbital (they have the same energy level, shape, and orientation)

لتلخيص:

  • samennshellsamen[math]n[/math]andl[math]l[/math]subshellsamen[math]n[/math],l[math]l[/math],andml[math]ml[/math]orbitalsame nn - shellsame n[math]n[/math] and l[math]l[/math] - sub-shellsame n[math]n[/math], l[math]l[/math], and ml[math]ml[/math] - orbital

Now,intheotheranswer,thereissomediscussionaboutspinorbitals,meaningthateachelectronwouldexistinitsownorbital.Forpracticalpurposes,youdontneedtoworryaboutthatbythetimethosesortsofdistinctionsmattertoyou,therewontbeanyconfusionaboutwhatpeoplemeanby"shells"and"subshells."Foryou,fornow,orbitalmeans"placewhereuptotwoelectronscanexist,"andtheywillbothsharethesamenn,l[math]l[/math],andml[math]ml[/math]values,buthaveoppositespins(ms[math]ms[/math]).Now, in the other answer, there is some discussion about spin-orbitals, meaning that each electron would exist in its own orbital. For practical purposes, you don't need to worry about that - by the time those sorts of distinctions matter to you, there won't be any confusion about what people mean by "shells" and "sub-shells." For you, for now, orbital means "place where up to two electrons can exist," and they will both share the same nn, l[math]l[/math], and ml[math]ml[/math] values, but have opposite spins (ms[math]ms[/math]).

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